Historical and ethnographic region
Lezgins, Tabasarans, Rutuls, Tsakhurs, Aguls, Udins, Khinalugs, Kryz, Budukhs, Haputs Jeks and, collectively, in the scientific literature "Lezgian (or Lezgian language) nations," or "peoples Lezgian groups," are among the indigenous, autochthonous Peoples of the Caucasus. These people discover each other closely related in many respects: the anthropological, linguistic (language), geography (territory occupied by the community), the historical and cultural (community history, material and spiritual culture), ethno-psychological and other.
Mastering the oldest person within the historical settlement Lezghian nations belongs to the era of the Upper Paleolithic, as evidenced by the finding of the lower jaw of one of the oldest forms of Neanderthal (Chellean era). Detection of Mingechaur tools Eneolithic, in particular stone hoe with a hole, say about the appearance here is already in a period of hoe farming system type.
At the end of IV - the end of III millennium BC resettlement area Lezghian peoples, is a vast area of distribution of Kuro-Araxes culture (Early Bronze Age). Settlements and cemeteries Middle and Late Bronze Age, discovered in the areas of Ganja, Mingechevir, Shamkhor, fix the further development of material and spiritual culture of the population, the emergence of plow agriculture, special bronze casting and pottery industries.
C III prior to the I millennium BC in the southern part of Alexander lived known from written sources lullubei, kutii, utii, Hurrian tribes and the northern region - the Caspian, utii, Leckie and other Albanian tribes. Some scholars identify and utiev kutiev and compare them with Udyns (respectively, the ancient Oaten - from Utica), but this view remains controversial.
In most of the territory of modern Azerbaijan and southern Dagestan lived different vostochnokavkazskie tribes, all of whom later started the IV. BC moved Albanians that have taken the head of large tribal union. Obviously, in the II. BC is the addition of the State of Caucasian Albania, with its capital in Kabale. Important urban centers in Albania appear Telayba mentioned by Claudius Ptolemy, Gelda, Albana, Gaytara etc. The core of the Caucasian Albania is considered to northern Azerbaijan and southern Dagestan, up to Derbent. The question of the limits of Caucasian Albania, Armenia, Iberia (Kartli), Asian Sarmatia also remains debatable.
Even more controversial is the question of ethnicity, Caucasian Albanians, who, according to most scholars, were primarily of Caucasian origin. Finally, this issue has been resolved only recently, after the discovery of ZN Aleksidze in the monastery of St. Catherine on Mount Sinai (Egypt) Albanian texts, dating from some researchers abroad IV-V centuries. And others - VI-IX centuries. Decipherment of the texts on the basis of one of the Lezgin - Udi, as well as their critical edition in 3 volumes with translation and commentary in 2009 put an end to debates on ethnicity, Caucasian Albanians.
Based on the data source III. BC, Strabo wrote that the Albanians are divided into 26 tribes, who speak their own dialects, and therefore "difficult to enter into relations with each other," and that a single king emerged from them recently, whereas previously each tribe ruled their king. In a list of appointments appear Anushirvan unit of ownership in the region formed after the annexation of the Sassanid Caucasian Albania: Hirsan, Vartan, Layzan (Lira), etc. Most modern research indicates that these sub-ethnic groups horonimy prinadlazhat Lezgian language family: different groups of Udi, proper Lezghins, Tsakhurs, Rutul, Aguls, Kryz, Budukha, hanalugam, lezginoyazychnym groups southwestern part of Caucasian Albania, and other peoples of Dagestan origin (Avars, Dargins, Laks and etc.). Apparently, Strabo distinguished these kindred peoples as Albanian tribes. Judging from the occupied territories (Northern and Southern Azerbaijan Dagestan), gosudarstvennoobrazuyuschim nucleus of Caucasian Albania were two main groups lezginoyazychnyh peoples who at the time, probably more able to understand each other's languages - utii and Leckie. Medieval Arabic historiography also enables us to distinguish among the tribes of the Caucasian Albania two languages and two major groups of Albanian people - arranskuyu (Aran - Parthian and Arran - later the Arab designation of Albania), includes its own Udins, and mingled lakzanskuyu (actually Lezgins, Tsakhurs, Rutul, etc.). Some of these people later took part in the ethnogenesis of the Azerbaijani people.
By the middle of the III. BC Caucasian Albania, and with it, and all possessions in the VA, were under the influence of the Sassanid, a new dynasty of rulers of Iran. At first, this effect was formal and limited recognition of vassalage by local rulers. In IV. BC Caucasian Albanians converted to Christianity, which was later claimed to apostolic origin and existed until 1836. In the beginning of V. Armenian educator with Saint Mesrob Albanian Beniamin reformed ("resumed") Albanian alphabet, consisting of more than 50 letters. This has contributed to the development of literary culture: the V century. BC true translation of the Bible, the creation of religious tracts, in VII. began compiling the history of the Caucasian Albania Movses Kagankatvatsi. In V-VII centuries. Important changes have occurred in the development of local societies, which caused important changes in the economy and culture of the local population. Larger and rapidly developing city of Derbent, Shabiran, Shamakhi, Kabala, Sciacca Shamkhor, Ganja. Largest trade and craft center was the capital of Caucasian Albania Partav. Artisans and merchants in cities already become a major social force.
With the IV. influence of external forces on Lezghian people has increased significantly. From the north via Derbent passage to their lands began to penetrate the numerous nomadic tribes, mainly maskuty (massagets), Alans, Huns, Khazars and Savirs. Maskuty settled in the northern part of Azerbaijan, in areas that later became known as Maskut (Muscat, Myushkyur). The constant threat of invasion from the north forced the Sassanid build additional defenses, pushing its boundaries further north. In the second half of the V - VI centuries. Sassanid presence in the region has increased significantly, causing a wave of uprisings antisasanidskih. It was during this period in the Caucasus, as well as in Iran, the movement has spread mazdakitov. Around 460 Sassanids introduced direct rule in the Caucasus Albania, but later (about 484) of Albania was able to restore its imperial power that existed prior to the VI. The political situation in the Caucasian Albania complicate coordinated with Iran (by Ibn Miskavayhu) migration of the Huns on the territory of the Eastern Caucasus, due to pressure tyurkyutov, as well as a long rivalry between Iran and the Byzantine Empire for influence in the region. In the 20's. VII. Byzantine Emperor Heraclius led an expedition to Atropatena and captured its capital Ganzak. At the same time to power in the Caucasian Albania came a new dynasty Mihranidov.
Education caliphate radically changed the religious and political topography of the region. During the reign of Caliph Umar (634-644 gg.) Arab-Muslim armies, conquering Sassanian Iran, invaded A. Between 639 and 643 years. Atropatena was conquered by the Arab Caliphate, and formed a separate province in its composition. In 654, the Caliph Uthman outfitted a new expedition to the region, led by Salman b. Rabia, who took Baylakan Partav and besieged. Caucasian Albania came out against the enemies in the union with Armenia, Georgia and Syunik. In the course of resistance to the conquerors became famous Albanian ruler Javanshir, the ruler of Gardman, son of Grand Duke (trout), Gregory Albania Varazi kind of Mihranidov. When Muaviya came to power, Javanshir twice visited Damascus and gained recognition for himself the ruler of the Caucasian Albania.
The struggle with the Arabs was conducted in parallel with the threat of confrontation between the Khazar from the north: in the battle for Kure Albanians defeated the Khazars, but in 662, the Khazars are back and looted many cities. In 684, the Albanians in alliance with the Armenians and Georgians again struck the Khazars defeat. After the murder in a plot Javanshir Caucasian Albania fell into a strip of strife, of which she left only with the advent of Varazi Trdat.
At the beginning of VIII century. Arabs have increased pressure on the Caucasus, sparking a rebellion in Albania and Armenia. The uprising was brutally suppressed by Muhammad b.. Khalid. According to the source, the nobles who took part in the uprising, were burnt alive. In 705 the dynasty Mihranidov in Arran was foiled. Finally, Shirvan, Arran and other areas of northern Azerbaijan and southern Dagestan were conquered by the Arabs only in the 30's. VIII century. after going Marwan b.. Muhammad in the Caucasus and the establishment of the Arab governorship here in the center of Janzen (now Ganja). Authority over the region passed into the hands of Arab administration, which relied on massive support from the Muslim immigrants from Arab regions as well as the Arab garrisons standing in all major cities and fortresses. Strengthening in Shirvan with fortifications Derbent became part of the defense system of the caliphate, designed to ensure the security of northern borders of the state from various threats from the Khazars and other nomads from the north.
The Arabs had conquered lands in the administrative reform, which resulted in the once unified area of Caucasian Albania were divided into several parts. City Partav (Bardai) together with the Dvina, Maraga and other areas of Iranian Azerbaijan became part of the emirate's first, and from 789 city even has its center. Territory of Northern Azerbaijan was divided into three regions, with their rulers (Amir), two of which - Shirvan and Arran - remained a significant lezginoyazychnoe population. According to VF Minorsky, Shirvan included in its membership several Lezghian principalities. In southern Dagestan Lezghian tribes were united in the principality Lakzi in which the rules of its ruler (malik). The capital was Lakzi Bilistan (presumably Akhty), but after a gain of Arab influence capital was moved to the mountains, in Tsakhur.
The first series of anti-Arab revolts in the Caucasus swept in the VIII. The most powerful scale and performance of the driving forces of the local population is known as the revolt of Babak. After the expulsion of the Arab garrisons in the hands of the rebels, along with other areas was the whole of Arran and Syunik. According to sources, the ranks of the rebels reached 300 thousand people, most of them were farmers, artisans, small landholders. Babek managed to stop the advance of several regular armies of the Caliphate, at least, the sources comprise six major expeditions to the Muslim forces. The revolt was suppressed only in the 836 was believed, not without the help of the Albanian ruler of Sahl b.. Smbat, sided with the Muslims. Babak was beheaded in 817 in the presence of the Caliph Mu'tasima. The uprising was the largest Khurramis anti-Arab and anti-Islamic speech on the Middle East, which have arisen among the conquered population.
At the end of VIII. Shirvan was in the hands of Arab descent Yazididov dynasty, descendants of Yazid b.. Mazyada appointed governor of the Arab in the Caucasus. Over time Yazididy actually become independent of the Caliphate, the only nominally recognizing the authority of the caliph. On Arran, the 889 was in possession of Muhammad b.. Abi-l-Sajaia. The descendants of Muhammad Sajid, tried to gain independence from the central government, and in 924 was even declared their independence. During this period, active Iranian tribes, primarily deylemtsy and Kurds in western Iran have created their own state. In the 40's. The tenth century. to power in Arran came deylemtsy Salaris (Musafiridy). In 970's. they were expelled from Ganja ruled in the Dvina Shaddadid Fadl b. Muhammad, who became known as the old Persian-Parthian traditions title arranshahik (985-1036). He had taken from Salaris Bardai and Shamkir attached to his possessions and became part of Khachen mint its own coins in Ganja. Hike Fadl b. Muhammad ended the rout of the North Semender followed by attacks on Arran Khazars stopped. Territorial disputes in the border zone with Georgia has led to hostility between Shaddadid and Georgian King Bagrat IV, at the instigation of the Alans who twice in the second half of XI century. DTV came through in Arran. Even earlier, Arran and Shirvan were subjected to repeated attacks by the Russes, once a joint campaign with the Alans and Lakzi. After one of the trips to Bardai Russes, where they encountered the Muslims, the city was badly damaged and has lost its former importance of large trade and handicraft center in the region.
The turning point in the history of peoples Lezghian was coming to power of the Caliphate in 1045 the Seljuks. The second wave of Seljuk invasion in 1075 ousted from power in Ganja Shaddadid, as well as in Derbent - Hashimites. Sultan Malik Shah granted Derbent Sau-Tegin lennogo rights of ownership and southern regions - the other Turkic warlords. Muhammad b.. Malik-Shah owned Ganja, which remained one of his residences, and after he became the supreme sultan of the Seljuks. Yazididov in Shirvan dynasty over time became iranizirovatsya. State Shirvanshahs lasted until the XVI century. Until it was absorbed by the Safavids.
In the XI-XII centuries. by the Seljuks of Arran, Shirvan, Derbent Lakzi and become part of the Muslim world. The region has created a number of major works of philosophical, poetic, theological. In XI. in the efforts of people Lezghian seldzhkuskogo vizier Nizam al-Mulk was set up two large madrassas university type: Nizamiyya madrassas in Ganja and Tsakhurs, where theological books were translated into "lakzansky" language. Islam in this period is spread primarily in the form of Sufi. Medieval epigraphy reports on the construction of monasteries in the region of Sufi (khanaka) and the activity of numerous Sufis (wandering dervishes - qalandars, woman, etc.). The elements of Sufi architecture documented in many monuments of architecture of the region, such as Pir Husayn al khanaka-Gada'iri River Pirsagat in Shirvan. However, the Albanian population in the countryside was still predominantly Christian. For the recognition of 'Abd al-Rashid al-Bakuvi Christianity remained the dominant religion in the villages until the end of the XV century. This means that the mass deetnizatsiya Albanian population, due process Turkization, broad scope has reached much later, only when the Safavids.
The first stage of the penetration of nomadic Turks of different races on the territory of Azerbaijan, first of all Hun-Savirs belongs to the II-V cc. But as long as tyurkyutskaya threat did not become real, Sassanids not attracted to cooperate with the Huns on their northern borders. The migration of the Huns to the south, and inland mountains of the North Caucasus has increased substantially since the invasion in tyurkyutskogo VI. Sources record the traces of the Huns, even in Utica and Artsakh. Turkic nomads of the time not much affect the age-old Caucasian population in these areas: Georgian Chronicle called Huns patterns of children, considering them as one of the local tribes.
Start processes Turkization Caucasian-Albanian population of Azerbaijan laid Oguz, or turkomany speaking the language of Oguz group and are considered to be the direct ancestors of modern Azeris by language. On the mass transfer at the beginning of the Oghuz 1020-ies. According to Ibn al-Asir. Oghuz migrated from Central Asia through Iran, which they won under the leadership of the Seljuk dynasty in 1038, and settled on the fertile lands of southern Azerbaijan.
After 1075 the whole territory of Azerbaijan, as well as land in Southern Dagestan Derbent up to become a part of the Seljuk state, whose borders coincide with the boundaries of the Caliphate. When Sau-Tegin and other Turkic holders lennyh possessions in the region penetrated numerous ghazis, Muslim "fighters for the faith" of Turkic origin, mostly Oghuz. According to Nasavi, the Turks sent Malik Shah in 1086 in Arran and Mugan, "spread there like locusts."
After the founding of the State of Atabeks or Ildegizidov (1136-1225) processes Turkization indigenous Caucasian population have become irreversible. The dynasty was founded Ildegizidov Kypchak (Polovtsian) Ghulam Shams al-Din Ildegiz who rose from among the Oghuz. In 1137, he was as lennogo ownership (iqta) received Arran, and then subdued the other regions of Azerbaijan.
In 1221 came the Mongols in the Caucasus, led by Jebe and Subedeya, which in its way almost to the base destroyed and looted Baylakan, the capital of Shirvan. In 1222 the same fate overtook Shemakha, where it was slaughtered almost the entire population. In the same year, beating Derbent, the Mongols went further north in the direction of Alan and Kipchaks. Following this Kipchaks invaded the south and captured Derbent, then Kabbalah and Ganja. In 1225 the territory from the south of Arran troops penetrated Khorezm, which also took part in Armenia and Georgia. State Atabeks fell under the strikes Khorezmshah Jalal-ud-Din (1225), who later himself became a victim of the second campaign of the Mongols in the early 1230's. The final stage of the Mongol conquest of the region belongs to the 1231-1239 years. When it was included in the Ulus Golden Horde, which was ruled Juchids.
In the middle of the XIII century. Lezghian people were in the possession of the Mongols Khulaguids, whose capital was first in Maragha, and then in Tabriz. Hulagu Khan, under the attacks in Baghdad fell in 1258 and ceased to exist the Arab Caliphate. Antimongolskie speech severely punished. In 1275 in Arran rebels attacked Abaka Khan. Khulaguids at odds with the Golden Horde, so the area was the scene of protracted A. internecine wars of the descendants of Genghis Khan. In the second half of the XIII - XIV in the beginning. Golden Horde troops invaded the territory of A. At least six times. Economic devastation caused by incessant wars put an end to reform Khulaguids Gazan Khan. The collapse of the state Khulaguids occurred in the mid XIV century. Mugan and Arran in the hands of Chobanidov and Shirvan - Jhelairid Kingdom in which subjugated Shirvanshakhs.
Education in southern Azerbaijan Gara Goyunlu with its capital in Tabriz and united Shirvanshah Ibrahim Sidi Ahmad Sciacca ruler, but after their battles with Kara Yusuf on the Kura River came under the nominal Lezgins dependence Kara Goyunlu. When Shirvanshah Halululle I, son of Ibrahim, Shirvan independence was restored.
At the end of the XIV century. resettlement area Lezghian peoples became an arena of struggle and Tokhtamysh Timur, conqueror of Central Asia. Through the diplomatic efforts of Ibrahim al-Darbandi Lezghins partly succeeded in those devastating consequences that befell many of the North Caucasian peoples. To a certain extent affected the Albanian Christian church.
XV-XVII centuries. marked by a bitter and protracted struggle between Safavid Iran and Ottoman Empire for influence in the Caucasus, where Lezghian people were in the midst of incessant wars. Religious wars led by Sheikh Dzhunayda, who died in 1460 in Dagestan, and his son, Haidar, who was killed in Tabasaran in 1488, were aimed at ousting of Sunni Islam and spread Shfism and - in its approval - to extend its influence. Under pressure from the Safavid dynasty of Kara Goyunlu was stopped, and the vast territory of Azerbaijan and Iran were established powerful theocratic state - the Imamate, the "reign of divine justice." When Shah Isma'ile (d. 1524), son of Haidar and founder of a new dynasty, the rulers of Iran, the Shia Imami wing was declared the state religion in the territory subject to the Safavids. Support of a new dynasty was Turkic know. In Shirvan and other areas Türkicized Sevnernogo Azerbaijan Shiite coup occurred, but among the native Caucasian population Sunnis retained their positions.
In the heyday of the Safavid Shi'ite Iran to pressure the newly strengthened Lezgins: Shah 'Abbas I (1587-1629) expelled the Ottomans from Azerbaijan and Dagestan. Another attempt to confirm Iran's influence in the region has made Turkmen Nadir Shah Afshar (1736-1747), deposed the Safavid and refused to Shfism "Twelvers" in favor of a much milder form of Shi'ism, however, in Dagestan, his troops were defeated and he himself almost died. When the Turkmen Qajar dynasty Iranian influence on the region was partially restored, but already in 1813 Fath 'Ali Shah (1797-1834) was forced to sign a contract Gulistan, under which Iran along with other territories in favor of Russia refused the claims on Dagestan , Karabakh, Ganja, Sheki, Shirvan, Derbent khanate, and Cuban. So Lezghian people finally became a part of the Russian Empire.
Meanwhile, history of close relations Lezghian and Russian peoples dates back to antiquity. Ancient Alban is mentioned in the "Chronicle." During his trips to the south in IX-X centuries. Rus entered into alliances with Lakzi and together with the Alans made joint expedition against the Muslim rulers, the Transcaucasus. In XI. Derbent governor relied on the personal guards, consisting of the Rus. August 23, 1722, during his Persian campaign of Derbent governor solemnly handed over to Peter I silver keys of Derbent.
By the end of the XVIII century. almost all the political entities are aware of Lezgins need for close cooperation and protection from Russia in their clash with Iran and Turkey. The Russian presence in the region in the minds of the people seemed Lezghian reliable bulwark against the endless war, destructive expansions from the south and a reliable guarantee of peace of creative development.
With the formation of the Soviet Union with its new national public entities and the administrative borders Lezghian people who live compactly in their historic territory was divided between the administrative border of the Azerbaijani SSR and the RSFSR (in the Dagestan ASSR).
At the present time in Russia Lezghian people live compactly in 10 districts of the southern part of the Republic of Dagestan in Ahtynskom, Kurahskom, Magaramkentskom, Suleiman Stalskiy, Hivskom, Rutul, Agul, Dokuzparinsky and Derbent districts in the cities of Makhachkala, Derbent, Dagestan Caspian Sea and the lights. In the Southern Dagestan is located 340 settlements with a population of 620 thousands.